ICELAND MOSS (Cetraria islandica)
Iceland Moss is formed by polysaccharide hydrocolloids known as mucilage for more than 50%. The alpha-D-glucan contained in mucilage is the most effective element owing to its therapeutic properties. In vitro tests have proved its ability to reduce inflammation diminishing the concentration of important mediators of inflammation such as the proteins of the complement system. Lichenin and isolichenin produce a barrier effect: thanks to their branched structure and high molecular weight, when they come into contact with the mucosa, they create a covering layer which protects the epithelium from pathogens.
THYME (Thymus vulgaris)
Thyme leaves and flowers contain essential oils (thymol and carvacrol), flavonoids, mucilage and tannins. Thyme has a long tradition as a remedy for respiratory problems such as dry cough, whooping cough, bronchitis, bronchospasm and asthma.
Its antitussive and antispasmodic properties depend on essential oils and flavonoids. The German Commission E has approved the use of thyme in the treatment of the symptoms of bronchitis and whooping cough as well as of catarrh in the upper respiratory tract.
IVY (Hedera helix)
Saponins (hederacoside), phytosterols, polyphenols (caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid), flavonoids (rutin) and alkaloids are the main components of ivy leaves. Owing to its high content in saponins, ivy has been included in the group of expectorant plants. Its antispasmodic properties as a bronchodilator have been proved both in vitro and in vivo as well as in some clinical trials.
According to several studies, ivy is effective to reduce the symptoms of upper respiratory infections.
Moreover, it has been approved also by the German Commission E to treat respiratory inflammation with hypersecretion of mucus and the symptoms of chronic bronchial inflammation.
PLANTAIN (Plantago lanceolata)
Plantago lanceolata contains several active components: mucilage (polysaccharides), iridoids (mainly aucubin and catalpol), tannins and polyphenols, some of which derive from caffeic acid (verbascoside) and flavonoids (luteolin). Plantain is a typically expectorant plant which soothes cough. In Europe it has been traditionally used to treat cough, whooping cough, bronchitis and bronchial asthma. Its anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic properties seem to be related to the presence of flavonoids and the esters of caffeic acid, as it has been proved in some experimental studies. Mucilage develops a soothing action.
Propolis is extremely complex from a chemical point of view as it contains over 300 different biochemical constituents such as essential oils (5-10%), resins (up to 50%), waxes (about 30%), pollen (about 5%), mineral salts, sugars and vitamins.
The most important components, for their therapeutic value, which are also those present in the highest quantity, are polyphenols: galangin, chysin and quercetin. The antibiotic effects of propolis are both bactericide and bacteriostatic and are effective on Gram positive and Gram negative strains.
Resveratrol is a molecule with a phenolic structure produced by some plant species (such as Polygonum cuspidatum) as a response to the infections caused by pathogens. Resveratrol has anti-inflammatory properties and can modify the biologic response of the immune system. The scientific literature available highlights the ability of resveratrol to promote the leukocyte phagocytosis of microorganisms. Moreover it acts as an antiproliferative agent against several viruses inhibiting the synthesis of the first proteins necessary to their replication cycle.
Are polyphenols: galangin, chysin and quercetin. The antibiotic effects of propolis are both bactericide and bacteriostatic and are effective on Gram positive and Gram negative strains.